A Study of Franz Kafka His sister, Grete, to whom he is very close, then whispers through the door and begs him to open it. Samsa is Gregor's father.
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Please send any copyright reports to: Only one flag request every ten seconds is allowed. Please try again later. She is initially shocked at Gregor's transformation; however, she wants to enter his room.
This proves too much for her, thus giving rise to a conflict between her maternal impulse and sympathy, and her fear and revulsion at Gregor's new form. The Charwoman is an old lady who is employed by the Samsa family to help take care of their household duties.
Apart from Grete and her father, she is the only person who is in close contact with Gregor. She is the one who notices that Gregor had died and disposes of his body. Like most Kafka works, The Metamorphosis tends to entail the use of a religious Max Brod or psychological interpretation by most of its interpreters. A Study of Franz Kafka Besides the psychological approach, interpretations focusing on sociological aspects which see the Samsa family as a portrayal of general social circumstances, have gained a large following as well.
He instead chose an interpretation guided by the artistic detail but categorically excluded any and all attempts at deciphering a symbolical or allegorical level of meaning. Arguing against the popular father complex theory, he observed that it is the sister, more so than the father, who should be considered the cruelest person in the story, as she is the one backstabbing Gregor. Gegensatz und Einheitlichkeit, Stil und Dargestelltes, Darstellung und Fabel sind in vollkommener Weise ineinander verwoben.
In , Nina Pelikan Straus wrote a feminist interpretation of Metamorphosis, bringing to the forefront the transformation of the main character Gregor's sister, Grete, and foregrounding the family and, particularly, younger sister's transformation in the story. Traditionally, critics of Metamorphosis have underplayed the fact that the story is not only about Gregor but also his family and especially, Grete's metamorphosis as it is mainly Grete, woman, daughter, sister, on whom the social and psychoanalytic resonances of the text depend.
It is made up of one passive, rather austere person and another active, more libidinal person. They also appear in The Judgement Georg and his friend in Russia , in all three of his novels e.
Robinson and Delamarche in Amerika as well as in his short stories A Country Doctor the country doctor and the groom and A Hunger Artist the hunger artist and the panther.
Reiner Stach argued in that no elucidating comments were needed to illustrate the story and that it was convincing by itself, self-contained, even absolute. He believes that there is no doubt the story would have been admitted to the canon of world literature even if we had known nothing about its author. Reduced to carrying out his professional responsibilities, anxious to guarantee his advancement and vexed with the fear of making commercial mistakes, he is the creature of a functionalistic professional life.
In , Ralf Sudau took the view that particular attention should be paid to the motifs of self-abnegation and disregard for reality. Beicken, Sokel, Sautermeister and Schwarz. According to them, the narrative is a metaphor for the suffering resulting from leprosy, an escape into the disease or a symptom onset, an image of an existence which is defaced by the career, or a revealing staging which cracks the veneer and superficiality of everyday circumstances and exposes its cruel essence.
He also points to the grotesque and tragicomical, silent film-like elements. Fernando Bermejo-Rubio argued that the story is often viewed unjustly as inconclusive. He derives his interpretative approach from the fact that the descriptions of Gregor and his family environment in The Metamorphosis contradict each other.
Bermejo-Rubio emphasizes that Kafka ordered in that there should be no illustration of Gregor. Another reason why Kafka opposed such an illustration is that the reader should not be biased in any way before his reading process was getting under way.
That the descriptions are not compatible with each other is indicative of the fact that the opening statement is not to be trusted. Volker Drüke believes that the crucial metamorphosis in the story is that of Grete. She is the character the title is directed at. Grete, by contrast, has matured as a result of the new family circumstances and assumed responsibility. Kafka's sentences often deliver an unexpected impact just before the period — that being the finalizing meaning and focus.
This is achieved from the construction of sentences in the original German, where the verbs of subordinate clauses are put at the end. For example, in the opening sentence, it is the final word, verwandelt , that indicates transformation:. Als Gregor Samsa eines Morgens aus unruhigen Träumen erwachte, fand er sich in seinem Bett zu einem ungeheuren Ungeziefer verwandelt. As Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams, he found himself transformed in his bed into a gigantic insect-like creature.
These constructions are not directly replicable in English, so it is up to the translator to provide the reader with the effect of the original text.
English translators have often sought to render the word Ungeziefer as "insect", but this is not strictly accurate. Kafka had no intention of labeling Gregor as any specific thing, but instead wanted to convey Gregor's disgust at his transformation.
The phrasing used by Joachim Neugroschel  is: However, in Kafka's letter to his publisher of 25 October , in which he discusses his concern about the cover illustration for the first edition, he uses the term Insekt , saying: It is not even to be seen from a distance. Ungeziefer has sometimes been translated as " cockroach ", " dung beetle ", " beetle ", and other highly specific terms. The term "dung beetle" or Mistkäfer is, in fact, used by the cleaning lady near the end of the story, but it is not used in the narration: Vladimir Nabokov , who was a lepidopterist as well as a writer and literary critic, insisted that Gregor was not a cockroach, but a beetle with wings under his shell, and capable of flight.
Nabokov left a sketch annotated, "just over three feet long", on the opening page of his heavily corrected English teaching copy. In his accompanying lecture notes, Nabokov discusses the type of insect Gregor has been transformed into, concluding that Gregor "is not, technically, a dung beetle. He is merely a big beetle". In the movie "The Producers" Max Bialystock and Leo Bloom are searching for the worst play ever written in order to progress their scam.
Max reads from an unnamed play From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Die Verwandlung. This article is about the literary work by Franz Kafka. For the biological process, see Metamorphosis. For other uses, see Metamorphosis disambiguation. Short story Absurdist fiction Slipstream. For other uses, see Gregor Samsa disambiguation. The Metamorphosis in popular culture. Die Kunst des Lesens: Meisterwerke der europäischen Literatur. Transforming Franz Kafka's Metamorphosis Signs, Kafka konkret — Das Trauma ein Leben.
Wiederholungsmotive im Werk als Grundlage einer psychologischen Deutung. Die Jahre der Entscheidungen , p. Beck, , p. Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte , Volume 86, Issue 3 , pp. The Metamorphosis and Other Stories. Retrieved 15 April New York, New York: Die Verwandlung Franz Kafka. The Trial The Castle Amerika. The Warden of the Tomb. Anna Akhmatova Richard Aldington W. Austrian writers German writers Liechtenstein writers Swiss writers in German.
Kurt Wolff Verlag, Leipzig. The Metamorphosis at Wikisource. German Wikisource has original text related to this article: