There are, however, only a few studies dealing with the clonal diversity of alpine plant species at the local scale Steinger et al. Molecular analysis of the Pleistocene history of Saxifraga oppositifolia in the Alps. Patterns of genotypic diversity in clonal plant species. In the case of initial seedling recruitment ISR , where the establishment of seedlings occurs only during colonization, different levels of success of genets and competition reduce the genetic diversity during a population's history Watkinson and Powell,
MATERIALS AND METHODS
It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. View large Download slide. The clonal structure of Quercus geminata revealed by conserved microsatellite loci.
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DNA polymorphism amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Spatial patterns of maternal lineages and clones of Galium odoratum in a large ancient woodland: For Permissions, please email: Email alerts New issue alert. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Related articles in Web of Science Google Scholar.
Citing articles via Web of Science Latest Most Read Most Cited Increasing the benefits of species diversity in multispecies temporary grasslands by increasing within-species diversity. Many alpine plant species combine clonal and sexual reproduction to minimize the risks of flowering and seed production in high mountain regions. The spatial genetic structure and diversity of these alpine species is strongly affected by different clonal strategies phalanx or guerrilla and the proportion of generative and vegetative reproduction.
Six SSR clones were found consisting of at least five samples, 17 clones consisting of more than two samples and seven single genotypes.
RAPD analysis revealed a higher level of clonal diversity but a comparable number of larger clones and a similar spatial structure. The spatial genetic structure as well as the occurrence of single genotypes revealed in this study suggests both clonal and sexual propagation and repeated seedling recruitment in established populations of S. Alpine habitats are characterized by challenging environmental conditions.
Short vegetation periods, limited nutrient resources, strong winds or long periods of snow cover are typical environmental factors at higher elevations Barry, ; Körner, These factors have a large impact on the distribution of alpine plant species and the composition of plant communities Kikvidze et al. Severe climatic conditions can hamper sexual reproduction in alpine regions, which means that flowering and seed production can be a risky mode of reproduction at higher altitudes Körner, ; Urbanska, Schütz, One way to cope with this constraint is clonal propagation, which is generally supposed to increase in importance with increasing elevation Bliss, A high proportion of alpine plant species are characterized by clonal growth Stöcklin and Bäumler, ; Klimes et al.
The advantages of clonal reproduction are to avoid the risks of sexual reproduction, to share resources through clonal integration and reduce the mortality of genets. On the other hand, diseases can be transmitted more easily among ramets, and resources for sexual reproduction are limited Klimes et al. Clonal reproduction of plant species can follow different strategies. Plants of the guerrilla type exhibit a dispersive growth form, distributing their ramets at larger distances.
In contrast, plants of the phalanx type show a dense growth form, clustering their ramets closely together and forming cushions.
Many plant species show, however, intermediate growth forms combining aspects of both strategies Körner, For clonal alpine plant species, the extreme types of this categorization are following either a conservative strategy phalanx species with low levels of plasticity and strong integration or an explorative strategy guerrilla species with high levels of plasticity and only low levels of integration Stöcklin, At the spatial scale, the different types of clonal reproduction result in a different distribution of ramets in the habitat.
Ramets of phalanx species are theoretically found close to each other, while ramets of guerrilla species are supposed to be more distant. Plant species often combine clonal and sexual reproduction. It is expected that this observation is also true for alpine clonal species Steinger et al.
Considering the genetic variability of clonal species, it has been shown that the genetic diversity depends on the establishment of seedlings Eriksson, , In the case of initial seedling recruitment ISR , where the establishment of seedlings occurs only during colonization, different levels of success of genets and competition reduce the genetic diversity during a population's history Watkinson and Powell, Repeated seedling recruitment RSR contributes, in contrast, to the formation and preservation of genetic diversity in populations of clonal plants.
Simulation experiments have shown that even the rare establishment from seeds is sufficient to maintain genetic diversity within populations of clonal plants Watkinson and Powell, Different strategies of clonal growth and combination with generative and vegetative reproduction lead to complex spatial patterns of genets at the local scale.
The spatial genetic patterns of clonal species have been analysed in many studies Luijten et al. There are, however, only a few studies dealing with the clonal diversity of alpine plant species at the local scale Steinger et al. In the study presented here, clonal spread of the alpine willow Salix herbacea was analysed.
The species exhibits a clonal system of underground rhizomes with aboveground leaves forming extensive mats often covering several square metres in snowbeds and alpine meadows. The clonal strategy of. The species is insect and wind pollinated Beerling, Salix herbacea is an amphi-atlantic species with a typical arctic—alpine distribution in Europe Beerling, It occurs mainly in the arctic and sub-arctic, and extends southwards in the mountains of the Pyrenees, Appenines and Bulgaria Tutin et al.
In the Alps, S. To investigate the spatial genetic pattern of S. The species covered more or less continuously the whole plot, but was not found in all sub-plots. Where possible, one sample was collected per sub-plot Fig. Sample design and clonal structure of alpine S. Within the study plot consisting of sub-plots, samples were collected. In six sub-plots no plant material was available —. Another six samples were omitted from the analysis due to PCR problems —.
The analysis of the remaining samples revealed six clones consisting of more than five samples A—F , 17 clones consisting of more than two samples g—p and seven single genotypes q—x.
Clonal diversity was analysed with nuclear microsatellites simple sequence repeats; SSRs using primers, which were already established for S. Primers were M13tail-labelled Oetting et al. Based on SSR variation, the genotype of each sample was determined. The data obtained about the spatial genetic structure and clonal diversity results were compared with the results of a random amplified polymorphic DNA RAPD analysis Williams et al.
After an extensive screening, eight primers were selected and used to perform RAPD analysis as described before Reisch et al. SSR primers used, their GenBank accession IDs and sequence, the size of the amplified products and the number of detected alleles in alpine S.
Fragment data were used to assess the number of different multilocus genotypes in the plot. Enjoy the rest of your Munich trip. This incredible place is the house of a not so old local beer. You can have great beers that already won a silver medal at the European Beer Stars and a gold medal at the word beer awards.
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