For the fourth consecutive year, Asia eclipsed all other markets, accounting for about two-thirds of global additions. I am in shock of your fantasies! Tick-by-tick data is updated every time an exchange rate changes — which can be many times a second — and delivers large batches of data on the millions of exchange rate movements throughout a single day. All photo, video and contacts. Ich möchte, dass du umsichtig bist.
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Biogas also is used in industrial and residential heating applications. In Europe, it is used increasingly to provide heat for buildings space and industry processes , often in conjunction with electricity production via CHP.
For example, around 4. Global Bio-Power Generation, by Region, See endnote 33 for this section. In Europe, growth in electricity generation from both solid biomass and biogas continued in , driven by the Renewable Energy Directive. As a result, bio-power capacity grew from 1. Elsewhere in Asia, capacity and generation rose strongly in Japan, with bioenergy featuring in the feed-in tariff scheme.
Brazil is the largest overall consumer of electricity and bio-power in Latin America. See endnote 50 for this section. Global production of fuel ethanol was almost unchanged between and at approximately 99 billion litres. US ethanol production rose 3. Ethanol production in Brazil fell slightly, to 27 billion litres. Ranking third for ethanol production globally in , China produced an estimated 3. All ethanol production and distribution is controlled by state-owned oil companies, and only state-approved companies can carry out blending and receive incentives and subsidies.
An E10 mandate is in place in 4 provinces and 27 cities, but production has been constrained and, historically, no blending was allowed to take place outside of these areas.
Elsewhere in Asia, ethanol production increased 3. Biodiesel production is more geographically diverse than ethanol, with production spread among many countries.
In Asia, after a significant decline to 1. The production and consumption of biomethane as a transport fuel also continued to increase during the year. In the United States, for example, consumption grew nearly six-fold between and , when biomethane provided the equivalent of million gallons million litres of ethanol equivalent The bioenergy industry includes feedstock suppliers and processors; firms that deliver biomass to end-users; manufacturers and distributors of specialist biomass harvesting, handling and storage equipment; and manufacturers of appliances and hardware components designed to convert biomass to useful energy carriers and energy services.
Industry, with support from academia and governments, also is making progress in bringing new technologies and fuels to the market. A very diverse set of industries is involved in delivering, processing and using solid biomass to produce heat and electricity, ranging from the informal supply of traditional biomass, to the locally based supply of smaller-scale heating appliances, to regional and global players involved in large-scale district heating and power generation technology supply and operations.
In Europe, the trend to convert large-scale power station capacity from coal to wood pellets continued. In both Japan and the Republic of Korea, wood pellet imports rose during the year, reflecting the rapidly increasing use of bioenergy for co-firing with coal in power generation.
The global market for wood pellets for industrial mostly power station use and heating use has continued to expand. Demand in the industrial sector reached some The United States is the largest exporter of wood pellets. In , US manufacturers produced approximately 6. Along with some large-scale plants designed to provide supply chain security to particular users such as Drax , the pellet industry mostly comprises independent producers and is based around sawmill operations.
The sustainability of bioenergy, and particularly of the large-scale use of pellets derived from wood, continues to be a controversial issue. The torrefaction of wood enables the production of pellets with a higher energy density and results in a product compatible with systems designed for coal.
Although commercialisation of the technology has been slower than expected, some promising developments occurred in Liquid biofuel production is concentrated among a small number of large industrial players with dominant market shares. New patterns of trade for ethanol are developing, particularly with the rise in both demand and production in China. China recently introduced an import tax on ethanol to support domestic production, and as of the country was exporting ethanol to some Asian markets.
Net imports of biodiesel to the United States more than doubled between and from 1. In Africa, despite significant potential and attempts in some countries to design biofuels strategies, development of production has been slow, held back in part by problems in accessing appropriate technology.
In , worldwide efforts to demonstrate the production and use of advanced biofuels were expanded. The aim of developing and commercialising advanced biofuels is three-fold: A number of routes are under development to produce advanced biofuels in the form of ethanol, butanol, diesel jet fuel, gasoline, methanol and mixed higher alcohols from an array of feedstocks.
Some Conversion Pathways to Advanced Biofuels. See endnote for this section. The market for new biofuels in was led by HVO, followed by ethanol from cellulosic materials such as crop residues and by fuels from thermochemical processes including gasification and pyrolysis.
Plans were announced in for the construction of several additional cellulosic ethanol manufacturing plants, which will extend the geographical coverage of production outside the United States and Europe. Commercialisation of thermal processes such as pyrolysis and gasification also advanced in The Edmonton plant uses tonnes per day of sorted municipal waste to produce methanol, and a facility allowing ethanol production was being constructed as of The plant, which uses vegetable oils, animal fats and greases as feedstocks, is capable of producing 2, barrels 0.
Strong interest in the development of aviation biofuels continued in , although quantities remained relatively small and mostly for demonstration use. Most biogas production occurs in the United States, where it is based predominantly on the collection of landfill gas, and in Europe. Production in Europe is focused more on the anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes, including animal manures, and increasingly on the digestion of recovered food wastes for example, in Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Growth rates have been higher in these new regions, albeit from a low starting level. Expanding markets for biogas and biomethane are stimulating commercial activity worldwide. In India, where biogas capacity is estimated at MW, many industrial processes now produce biogas, driven by strong water-quality standards that limit the release of effluents into waterways. In Africa, biogas production has continued to expand, largely from municipal and agricultural wastes.
There are no precise universally accepted definitions for what comprises traditional use of biomass. This, however, fails to take into account the inefficient use of biomass in many industrial and commercial applications in these countries, the efficient use of biomass in developing countries and the inefficient use within residential heating in some OECD, European and Eurasian countries.
A discussion on this and other methodological issues associated with biomass can be found in Sustainable Energy for All, Sustainable Energy for All June , http: Geothermal resources provide electricity and thermal energy services heating and cooling.
In , the estimated electricity and thermal output from geothermal sources was PJ i TWh , with each providing approximately equal shares. Kenya, Mexico and Japan also completed projects during the year, and several other countries had projects under development. See endnote 3 for this section. The countries with the largest amounts of geothermal power generating capacity at the end of were the United States 3.
See endnote 4 for this section. Indonesia added about MW of new capacity in , ending the year with 1. The plant is notable for being a combined-cycle operation, analogous to a Turkish plant coming online in , where conventional flash turbines are supplemented with a binary system to extract additional energy from the post-flash turbine steam, maximising energy extraction and efficiency. Following the opening of 10 plants in , Turkey added at least another 10 new geothermal power plants in , increasing capacity by about MW for a total of MW.
In Mexico, a 25 MW condensing flash unit was added to the Domo San Pedro plant, taking over from two 5 MW temporary wellhead units that were installed in to get production under way.
This plant is the first private geothermal project in the country, but another was in the early stages of exploratory drilling as of early A combination of a higher FIT and an exemption from environmental impact assessments for small plants less than 7. However, as of early the country had no large-scale projects under development. The government also announced plans to cover some of the initial costs of exploratory drilling and data gathering to address development risk. Project development and other geothermal activities were under way in several other countries during , including the United States.
Although the country saw no net increase in geothermal capacity, leaving the total at 3. The Philippines is second only to the United States for total geothermal power capacity in operation. In China, the central government plans to increase the sustainable use of geothermal energy in cities to reduce local air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.
Unlike many of its Asian neighbours, Malaysia had no geothermal plants in operation by end This will change upon completion of a 30 MW plant under construction in the state of Sabah on the island of Borneo. Croatia also initiated construction of its first-ever geothermal power project in Ethiopia shares the geothermal riches of the Great Rift Valley with Kenya, but limited development has occurred to date, with about 7 MW in place. Many of the islands of the Caribbean are volcanic and have the potential to displace costly fuel imports with local geothermal energy.
Vincent and the Grenadines for the construction of a 15 MW geothermal power plant that is expected to reduce power costs, provide local jobs and improve the reliability of electricity service. Geothermal direct use — direct thermal extraction for heating and cooling, excluding heat pumps iii — was estimated to be PJ 79 TWh in , based on historical growth rates for various geothermal heat applications, which suggests that an estimated 1.
The single largest direct use application is estimated to be swimming pools and other public baths, followed by space heating including district heat networks. China utilised the largest amount of direct geothermal heat Several EU countries have added direct use capacity through the continued expansion of geothermal district heating. Between and , 51 new or renovated geothermal district heating plants were completed in the EU, adding about MW th of capacity.
The main markets are France, the Netherlands, Germany and Hungary. In France, geothermal district heating is extending beyond the Paris metropolitan area, which has seen significant development of these systems in recent years. In early , the city of Bordeaux issued a contract to develop geothermal resources to serve the bulk of the heating needs of about 28, homes.
Chemical and hydraulic stimulations of the field did not result in notable induced seismic activity. Development of geothermal for heat also continued in China, where direct use of geothermal energy covered slightly more than million square metres m 2 of heated space as of Under the 13th Five-Year Plan, China aims to increase direct use of geothermal heat by another million m 2 by The geothermal industry continued to face challenges in , burdened by the inherent high risk of geothermal exploration and project development, the associated lack of risk mitigation, and the constraints of financing and competitive disadvantage relative to low-cost natural gas.
Yet the industry made progress with new project development in key markets, and industry leaders cemented partnerships to tackle new opportunities. Progress on the development of geothermal energy around the world has been constrained, in part, by a lack of clear resource assessment standards.
To help address this challenge, in new geothermal specifications were completed under the UN Framework for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources. The industry is sensitive to trends in oil and natural gas prices. Low oil and gas prices tend to reduce global demand for drilling rigs for oil and gas exploration, which can have a positive effect on the geothermal industry by reducing the associated costs of geothermal exploration and the development of new fields.
Some top technology providers have formed partnerships in recent years to pursue projects jointly. Technology advances continued during and into In early , after days of drilling, the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project achieved a significant milestone for the geothermal industry with the completion of its 4,metre-deep borehole on the Reykjanes Peninsula.
The project aimed to investigate the feasibility of finding and utilising supercritical hydrothermal fluids, which modelling suggests could have 10 times the power output of a conventional geothermal well, potentially allowing for improved economics and reduced environmental impact per unit of energy produced. Also in Iceland, methods have been developed to reinject to the ground both carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide H 2 S for sequestration in mineral form.
Because the CO 2 concentrations in geothermal gases can be significant, some experts are concerned about the potential greenhouse gas impact of open-loop geothermal power generation, although emission rates depend on local geology and operating conditions. In California, CO 2 emissions from geothermal power plants are significantly lower per kilowatt-hour kWh than those from coal- or natural gas-fired plants — emissions have been estimated at less than 0.
Some technology advances have promised to expand the application of geothermal power. Italy started operating a hydro-generator in a geothermal injection well during As a result, the 25 MW Cove Fort plant captures the energy of the geothermal brine flowing back into the earth, increasing plant efficiency. The sheer number of oil- and gas-producing wells at the site means that the energy production potential is significant. Research continued in the field of enhanced or engineered geothermal systems EGS during , particularly in the United States, where government-funded research has aimed to realise commercial, cost-competitive power production.
To achieve economical geothermal production elsewhere, or to enhance production at existing locations, fracturing of sub-surface rock formations can create the needed permeability to form a productive geothermal reservoir, which is known as EGS. An example of an EGS project is the Rittershoffen project in France, mentioned above; this facility is a thermal application, but such systems also can be used to generate electricity with the use of binary-loop technology.
EGS has been identified as a key to expanding the potential of geothermal heat and power production worldwide. Each fluid cycle is closed, and the geothermal fluid is re-injected into the heat reservoir.
The binary cycle allows an effective and efficient extraction of heat for power generation from relatively low-temperature geothermal fluids. ORC binary geothermal plants use an organic working fluid, and the Kalina cycle uses a non-organic working fluid. In conventional geothermal power plants, geothermal steam is used directly to drive the turbine. Global hydropower capacity additions in are estimated to be at least 25 GW, with total capacity reaching approximately 1, GW i.
Global hydropower generation was estimated to be 4, TWh in , up about 3. See endnote 2 for this section. More than one-third of new hydropower capacity was commissioned in China. China also was the leading installer of pumped storage capability during the year, followed by South Africa, Switzerland, Portugal and the Russian Federation.
See endnote 5 for this section. In Brazil, hydropower capacity increased by 5. Ecuador ranked third for newly installed hydropower capacity. In Africa, Ethiopia reached a significant milestone in Vietnam ranked fifth worldwide for additions, commissioning a total of 1. In addition to generating hydropower, this plant is expected to regulate flows for flood protection and water supply during the dry season.
India brought online approximately 0. The United States continued to rank third globally for installed hydropower capacity, adding a net of MW, for a year-end total of 80 GW. The plan will require the state to allocate additional funds for flood control and emergency response capability, to enhance its existing dam inspection programme and to seek federal action to further improve dam safety. The Russian Federation remained one of the top countries for total capacity.
The 30 MW Zaragizhskaya facility in Kabardino-Balkaria completes a three-plant cascade and was built without a dam, and the MW MW in pump mode Zelenchukskaya is a mixed pumped storage plant that incorporates two reversible turbines to combine conventional hydropower generation with pumped storage capability. The Russian Federation also completed modernisation projects at several hydropower facilities in order to improve their reliability, safety and efficiency.
The World Bank remains committed to continuing its support for well-designed and well-implemented hydropower projects of all sizes for both local development and climate mitigation, while noting that resettlement of communities, flooding of large areas of land and significant changes to river ecosystems must be carefully considered and mitigated. Growing shares of variable renewable energy have given extra impetus to the deployment of additional electricity storage capacity.
Pumped storage is the dominant source of large-scale energy storage, and new projects are under development.
Global pumped storage capacity rose by more than 6 GW in , with new capacity installed in China, South Africa and Europe. South Africa completed the installation of three turbines MW each of the 1. The two remaining turbines were expected to begin operation in On a smaller scale, pumped storage is being pursued to supplement mini-grids and to help integrate variable renewable energy. For example, a MW pumped storage facility is being implemented in the Canary Islands as part of a larger programme to improve grid stability and to accommodate variable generation.
As the vast stock of hydropower facilities around the world ages, modernisation and retrofitting of existing facilities continues to be a significant part of industry operations, with the potential to increase greatly the performance of existing plants. In addition to ongoing improvements to mechanical equipment such as turbines, plant operators also continued to implement advanced control technologies and data analytics for digitally enhanced power generation.
It is expected that these steps will help to optimise plant management for greater reliability, efficiency and lower cost, while also allowing for more flexible integration with other grid resources, including variable renewable energy. Climate risk is a pressing concern for the hydropower industry. On the other hand, the impacts of climate change may positively or negatively affect the hydropower sector in the future. As hydropower development at home has slowed, Chinese-based corporations have been expanding their involvement in hydropower projects elsewhere, including construction, the supply of hydroelectric equipment, and plant operations, with particular focus on developing countries.
Despite the value of pumped storage to grid stability and integration of renewable energy in general, the European regulatory environment is characterised as unfavourable for pumped storage facilities. Pure pumped hydro plants are not energy sources but means of energy storage. Pumped storage plays an important role in balancing power, in particular for variable renewable resources.
The global capacity of mixed plants in was estimated at about 38 GW, corresponding to global pure pumped storage capacity of GW for a total of nearly GW of pumping capability. Ocean energy refers to any energy harnessed from the ocean by means of ocean waves, tidal range rise and fall , tidal streams, ocean permanent currents, temperature gradients and salinity gradients. Aside from tidal range facilities such as Sihwa and La Rance, which use established in-stream turbine technology, ocean energy technologies are still largely in pre-commercial development stages.
Tidal current technologies are the furthest along, with the first tidal turbine arrays nearing commercial deployment.
Wave energy converters are advancing to the pre-commercial demonstration stage, and some pilot projects have been developed utilising ocean thermal energy conversion and salinity gradient technologies. A potentially significant commercial tidal range project, the MW Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon in Wales, was awaiting final government approval at the end of Most of the projects focus on tidal stream and wave energy, but some active projects also exist in the areas of thermal and salinity gradients.
The character of was similar to the previous year for the ocean energy industry, with a growing number of companies around the world advancing their technologies and deploying new and improved devices.
However, commercial success for ocean energy technologies remained in check due to perennial challenges. These include financing obstacles in an industry characterised by relatively high risk and high upfront costs and the need for improved planning, consenting and licensing procedures.
The tidal industry was again very active in and celebrated notable achievements, with several deployments in Scotland as well as in France and Canada. Also in Scotland, the Meygen tidal energy project reached a significant milestone in late with the first 1.
Tidal stream technology developer Sabella SAS France completed one year of testing of its full-scale, grid-connected 1 MW D10 tidal turbine off the coast of Brittany, in the Fromveur Strait, where it had supplied electricity to Ushant Island. Wave energy also continued to progress in with several pilot and demonstration projects around the world, including in Spain, Sweden, the United States, the Republic of Korea and China. The plant has been in operation since and generates electricity by harnessing wave-driven compressed air oscillating water column, OWC , similar to the new Oceantec device.
Swedish wave energy companies also made progress. The test was completed in March with the unit having produced power continuously over a span of six months. Wave energy technologies are among the variety of ocean energy technologies being developed in the Republic of Korea. Among notable projects launched in was a study focused on integrating wave energy converters, such as OWC devices, with mini-grid connected energy storage on islands and other remote locations that have suitable breakwaters.
In , electricity started flowing from the first two turbines of a seven-turbine, 3. Plans and roadmaps to support the industry advanced in other parts of the world as well, often through collaborations between government and industry. Intended to establish a path towards a thriving European market for ocean energy, the Roadmap outlined four Action Plans designed to establish: Some examples of smaller-scale, cross-border co-ordination already exist in Europe.
The FORESEA i project, launched in , provides competitive funding opportunities to ocean energy technology companies to place their devices at test centres in the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Netherlands and France.
With a total budget of USD The funding was expected to keep the company on track towards commercialisation of its WaveRoller technology, with a kW full-scale device pending installation in Portugal.
Project de-risking by governments can come in the form of direct research funding and also through the establishment and operation of ocean energy test centres. Mexico also completed preparations for the Mexican Centre for Innovation in Ocean Energy CEMIE-Ocean , which aims to foster collaboration between academia and industry for the advancement of ocean energy science and technologies.
The centre was launched in with USD 20 million in funding for the first eight years of operation. Early research has focused on resource assessment, permitting and legal frameworks related to marine concessions, biofouling and marine corrosion. In a similar vein, two important reports examining ocean energy-related challenges were published in One report focused on the status of scientific knowledge on potential interactions between ocean energy devices and marine animals, such as the risk of animals colliding with moving components; various potential impacts of sound propagation from ocean energy devices; and any biological effect of electromagnetic fields generated from underwater cables.
The other report addressed the challenges of consenting processes for ocean energy development, where lack of clarity in the process may create potential barriers to the industry. The report's recommendations include the need to acknowledge and define the role of marine spatial planning; to clarify jurisdictions of different authorities; and to co-ordinate and streamline licensing and consenting processes.
As in , a UK ocean energy company was forced into administration mere months after deploying its device. In late , Tidal Energy Ltd. Where capacity is known to be in alternating current AC , it is made explicit in the text and endnotes. During , at least 75 GWdc i of solar PV capacity was added worldwide — equivalent to the installation of more than 31, solar panels every hour.
For the fourth consecutive year, Asia eclipsed all other markets, accounting for about two-thirds of global additions. While China continued to dominate both the use and manufacturing of solar PV, emerging markets on all continents have begun to contribute significantly to global growth.
See endnote 6 for this chapter. In , China added See endnote 12 for this chapter. Even so, the distributed market more than tripled relative to The rapid increase in solar PV capacity in China, up fold since the end of , has caused grid congestion problems and interconnection delays.
The United States was a distant second after China for new installations in Although all US sectors expanded, growth occurred primarily in the utility segment. Large-scale projects have driven most of Japan's solar PV expansion in recent years.
Since the introduction of a FIT in , Japan has seen a rapid increase in renewable power capacity, with solar PV representing most of the total. The third largest market in Asia was India, which ranked fourth globally for additions and seventh for total capacity. The Republic of Korea followed India in the region, adding 0. The EU became the first region to pass the GW milestone in quickly surpassed by Asia ; the region ended the year with an estimated GW, more than 32 times its capacity.
Europe has become a challenging market for several reasons. The region is transitioning from FIT incentives to tenders and feed-in premiums for large-scale systems, and to the use of solar PV for self-consumption in residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Utilities in Australia also are facing major impacts from solar PV.
The country added nearly 0. In addition to Australia, Germany and Japan, interest in solar-plus-storage is picking up in other developed countries e. Solar PV is playing an important role in providing energy access in Latin America and the Caribbean, although the vast majority of capacity installed to date has been in large-scale projects.
The country added over 0. See endnote 13 for this chapter. Although relatively little capacity was operating in the Middle East by the end of , interest in solar PV has started to pick up. Countries without domestic fossil fuels have begun investing in solar power to diversify energy sources and economies, and oil producers are taking advantage of good solar resources, low land and labour costs, and favourable loan rates to preserve their fossil resources for export.
Across Africa, countries are turning to solar PV to diversify their energy mix, meet rising electricity demand and provide energy access. Rapidly falling costs, new business models and a global certification scheme have combined to enable the emergence of projects of all sizes. While demand is expanding rapidly for off-grid solar PV, the capacity of grid-connected systems is rising more quickly and continues to account for the vast majority of solar PV installations worldwide.
The drivers include increased use of tenders and availability of low-cost capital. Around the world, the number and size of large-scale plants continued to grow in Several retailers and international corporations based in China, Europe, India, North America and elsewhere invested heavily in solar PV during the year. Solar PV plays a substantial role in electricity generation in several countries. In , solar PV accounted for 9. Despite tremendous demand growth in , the year brought unprecedented price reductions for modules, inverters and structural balance of systems.
Downwards pressure on prices has challenged manufacturers, whose costs have not declined as quickly and who are seeing small, if any, margins.
Low bids were due at least in part to expectations that technology costs would continue to fall, as well as to relatively low weighted average cost of capital and expected low operating costs in some locations. A wide range in prices exists among different locations due to variations in soft non-technology costs and cost of capital, as well as in solar resource, market and regulatory conditions. Project scale also has a significant impact on price.
China dominated global shipments in , for the eighth year running. Locked in a race to build bigger, more advanced factories to produce panels faster and more cheaply than their competitors, companies announced expansions throughout the year. However, some manufacturers and other solar companies scaled back expansion plans, closed facilities, changed strategies or restructured to adjust to changing landscapes.
On balance, global production of crystalline silicon cells and modules rose significantly in Estimates of cell and module production, as well as of production capacity, vary widely; increasing outsourcing and rebranding render the counting of production and shipments more complex every year.
Consolidation continued as downwards pressure on prices and slim margins made a challenging year for even the most competitive producers, and led manufacturers in and outside of China to lay off workers and some companies to fail. Mergers and acquisitions, as well as new partnerships, continued as companies aimed to capture value in project development or to move into new markets locations or applications.
Falling prices and expanding markets for solar PV have lured new players to the industry. Fossil fuel producers also moved further into solar energy in Banks, pension funds and mutual funds also are investing in large-scale solar PV and wind power projects and partnering with solar companies, providing new pools of funding. Efficiency gains from such advances have reduced the number of modules required for a given capacity, lowering soft costs. Inverters also are becoming more sophisticated and making a growing contribution to grid management, and manufacturers are working to improve long-term reliability and system-prediction methods.
Despite record efficiencies and declining system prices, CPV has been unable to compete with conventional solar PV. Efforts to advance recycling processes continued, although there was relatively small demand for recycling of waste and solar panels at end-of-life, or damaged or defective panels as of The size of the busbar determines the maximum amount of current that it can carry safely. They have experienced a steep rate of efficiency improvement in laboratories over the past several years.
Concentrating solar thermal power CSP , also known as solar thermal electricity STE , saw MW of capacity come online in , bringing global capacity to more than 4.
See endnote 1 for this section. South Africa led the market in new additions in , becoming the second developing country to do so after Morocco in For the second year in a row, all new facilities that came online incorporated thermal energy storage TES. TES continues to be viewed as central to the competitiveness of CSP by providing the flexibility of dispatchability.
See endnote 8 for this section. Parabolic trough and tower technologies continued to dominate the market, with parabolic trough systems representing the bulk of capacity that became operational in as well as most of the capacity expected to come online during Spain remained the global leader in existing CSP capacity, with 2.
South Africa brought its first commercial tower plant online with the launch of the 50 MW with 2. China brought its first 10 MW of capacity online in Around the world, several projects that are being built are expected to come online over the next three years. In this respect, CSP is receiving increased policy support in countries with limited oil and gas reserves, constrained power networks, a need for energy storage, or strong industrialisation and job creation agendas.
While Morocco did not bring new capacity online in , it continued to be a key driver of CSP expansion. Some CSP activity continued in Europe during CSP activity saw a significant shift from Spain and the United States to developing countries in , and this trend continued in The ongoing stagnation of the Spanish market, along with a long-predicted slowdown in the United States, resulted in ongoing growth of industrial activity and increased partnerships in new markets, including South Africa, the MENA region and particularly China.
With the exception of the fundamental restructuring that took place at Abengoa, was a relatively quiet year for CSP companies in terms of mergers, acquisitions and closures, with no major reports of significant corporate shifts.
Although commercial developers have continued to focus on trough and tower plants, with many facilities exceeding MW in size, Fresnel facilities also are being planned and built, particularly for non-traditional or smaller facilities.
This development is most notable in China, where four Fresnel plants totalling 90 MW were under construction at end, and in France, where a 9 MW facility also under construction will be the first Fresnel plant to include several hours of TES capacity.
The track record of larger TES systems continued to advance during the year, with various facilities proving their ability to generate power in the absence of sunlight and even throughout the night. In South Africa, for example, the newly commissioned Khi Solar One facility reached a technological milestone for the region when it completed a hour cycle of uninterrupted solar power generation.
CSP costs vary widely depending on the specific economic characteristics and DNI levels of a given location.
Significant progress is being made in understanding the real value of CSP with TES in providing dispatchable power to grids with increasing shares of variable renewable power. While CSP remains more expensive than wind power and solar PV on a pure generating cost basis, the overall value of CSP with TES can be higher as a result of its ability to dispatch power during periods of peak demand. Where thermal storage capacity has been reported in hours, it is assumed that these are full load hours i.
This section has converted capacity to MWh by multiplying peak plant capacity by full load hours. This is distinct from the Rankine Cycle used in existing CSP plants which makes use of water as the working fluid, in conjunction with a steam turbine.
The Brayton Cycle can achieve higher operating temperatures, which results in higher efficiency. Solar thermal technology is used extensively in all regions of the world to provide hot water, to heat and cool space, to dry products and to provide heat, steam or refrigeration for industrial processes or commercial cooking.
By the end of , solar heating and cooling technologies had been sold in at least countries. Solar thermal collectors of all types provided approximately TWh 1, PJ of heat annually by the end of , equivalent to the energy content of million barrels of oil. Due to low fossil fuel prices throughout the year, new global installations of solar thermal systems declined again in See endnote 6 for this section.
In most of these top 20 countries, markets were dominated by flat plate collectors. In China and India more than half of additions were vacuum tube collectors. New gross installations totalled The formal market remained fairly stable, with an estimated 1. Brazil continued to rank third for new installations and remained the largest solar thermal market in South America. The United States was the fifth biggest market worldwide. The European Union EU was again the second largest regional market after Asia, with estimated gross additions of 1.
In Germany and Italy, these impeding factors had a stronger impact on investment decisions than did a high level of subsidies. In addition, energy-efficient building regulations supported the installation of heat pumps in new buildings in Germany and France, suppressing markets for solar thermal systems. See endnote 37 for this section. Globalisation of solar heating and cooling technologies continued in , with sales picking up in several new emerging markets, including Argentina, the Middle East and parts of eastern and central Africa.
Solar district heating enjoyed increased attention across Europe and China, led by Denmark, which had a record year for new installations and experienced the fastest growth of new solar thermal capacity among the top 20 markets. Denmark brought into operation 31 new solar district heating plants and expanded 5 existing plants, for a total of MW th added in ; this compares to 15 new and 3 expanded plants totalling MW th in The strong market in Denmark was supported by good framework conditions — including national taxes on fossil fuels, sufficient land for cost-effective ground-mounted collector fields, and the existence of non-profit, user-owned co-operatives that operate local district heating systems.
The successes in Denmark have inspired intensive discussions and project development activities in other central European countries, especially in Germany and Poland. In addition, two other solar district heating plants larger than kW th m 2 began operation in Europe in Sweden added a 0.
Interest in solar district heat increased beyond Europe as well. In the Chinese province of Shandong, a subsidy scheme was announced in to support central space heating systems in public buildings, such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes and daycare facilities. The share of solar energy that can be achieved in a district heating network depends heavily on the type and scale of integrated storage solutions.
System improvements such as lowering the district loop temperature and enhancing the thermal stratification in the tank made it possible for the system to meet the entire space heating demand of 52 energy-efficient residential buildings during the winter of Solar thermal technologies — including concentrating collector types such as linear Fresnel, parabolic trough and dish collectors — also are used to provide process heat for a growing number of manufacturing facilities. The year saw the first assessment for the world market of solar heat for industrial processes SHIP.
The industry segments with the highest numbers of realised SHIP plants in were food and beverage, machinery and textiles. One example was the Amul Fed Dairy in India, which installed a m 2 parabolic trough collector field to supply steam for milk pasteurisation; this project has the potential to be replicated by several other dairies in the region.
Copper mining and enhanced oil recovery have seen the largest SHIP installations to date. The largest solar process heat plant in operation worldwide in was a Also in , construction continued on the 1 GW th enhanced oil recovery plant in Oman.
Solar process heat is far from meeting its economic and technical potential. Low fossil fuel prices and lack of concern among industry stakeholders about CO 2 emissions and other environmental challenges have limited interest in alternative energy sources, including solar thermal.
According to suppliers of SHIP, the most important conditions for enabling robust market development are high fossil energy prices and political mandates for the use of solar process heat. Monitoring of a largescale demonstration PV-T plant in Switzerland found that the system could achieve an annual thermal yield of kWh per m 2 in addition to the annual kWh per m 2 of solar electricity that it produced.
In France, about 55, m 2 of systems — mostly air-based PV-T elements for single-family houses — was installed during the year; this total was close to the newly installed water-driven flat plate collector area 65, m 2. Solar thermal cooling continued to face challenges during in the key markets of Europe and China due to falling solar PV prices, which allow for the cost-effective operation of compression chillers powered by solar electricity during daylight, and to low fossil fuel prices.
As a result, solar cooling systems are used increasingly for commercial and public buildings when also supplying year-round solar hot water. In China, increasing use of solar space heating installations during also offered new opportunities for solar cooling because surplus heat in summer can be used for air conditioning.
This combined heating and cooling operation mode was first demonstrated in in an office building in Shanghai with a m 2 flat plate collector field and a 23 kW absorption chiller. Increasing demand for air conditioning in sun-rich countries, combined with financial support from international development agencies, has helped to spread interest in solar heat-driven cooling systems in non-OECD countries.
In , three new solar cooling systems were completed in Jordan: In neighbouring Egypt, a 35 kW chiller, supplied by a linear Fresnel collector, began cooling a medical centre north of Cairo in October The project was jointly implemented by experts from Egypt, Greece, Italy and Cyprus and received European funding.
Also in , a Brazilian university in the province of Minas Gerais, in co-operation with a local electricity supplier, installed two solar cooling demonstration systems, with a 10 kW and a 35 kW imported absorption chiller and locally produced collectors.
The year was a turning point in the solar thermal industry. Demand from homeowners, for many years the core sales segment for the solar thermal industry, again declined, and installers — the key supply chain partners of the industry in Europe — showed less interest in solar thermal technology. To counter the declining demand from established sales partners and end-consumers, an increasing number of manufacturers of solar collectors and tanks changed their product lines and sales strategies.
Many suppliers of solar thermal systems responded to the challenges by taking new directions and diversifying their portfolios. In Austria, for example, several collector manufacturers added heat pumps and solar PV solutions to their product offerings in order to provide complete heating system solutions. In addition to focusing on new applications for solar thermal technologies, some suppliers are developing new business models.
In Germany, manufacturers of solar thermal systems provided potential end-consumers with online sales platforms for heating systems with or without solar energy; clients could provide information online about their desired heating system and then receive an offer directly from the system supplier, bypassing the installer.
Despite the challenges in much of Europe and China, some industrial players benefited from strong tailwinds in In response to strong market growth in Argentina, at least 32 businesses started commercial activities during the year, for a total of at least solar thermal businesses. Their exports even exceeded domestic sales, of MW th.
Manufacturers of air collectors in Germany and Austria recorded increasing sales, despite the general downwards trend in these countries. This growth was supported by cost-effective system solutions e. The year was a bright period for suppliers of solar district heating systems in Denmark, where the capacity of solar thermal plants supplying district heat doubled in Outside of Denmark, district heating networks usually operate at significantly higher temperatures, reducing the efficiency of conventional flat plate collectors.
Most leading solar thermal manufacturers worldwide consolidated their positions in It has been proposed that organic agriculture can reduce the level of some negative externalities from conventional agriculture. Whether the benefits are private or public depends upon the division of property rights. Several surveys and studies have attempted to examine and compare conventional and organic systems of farming and have found that organic techniques, while not without harm, are less damaging than conventional ones because they reduce levels of biodiversity less than conventional systems do and use less energy and produce less waste when calculated per unit area.
A to investigation by the Cranfield University for the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in the UK found that it is difficult to compare the Global warming potential , acidification and eutrophication emissions but "Organic production often results in increased burdens, from factors such as N leaching and N2O emissions", even though primary energy use was less for most organic products.
N 2 O is always the largest global warming potential contributor except in tomatoes. However, "organic tomatoes always incur more burdens except pesticide use ". Researchers at Oxford University analyzed 71 peer-reviewed studies and observed that organic products are sometimes worse for the environment. They also sought to find specific solutions to specific circumstances.
Proponents of organic farming have claimed that organic agriculture emphasizes closed nutrient cycles, biodiversity, and effective soil management providing the capacity to mitigate and even reverse the effects of climate change  and that organic agriculture can decrease fossil fuel emissions.
Critics of organic farming methods believe that the increased land needed to farm organic food could potentially destroy the rainforests and wipe out many ecosystems. According to a meta-analysis of 71 studies, nitrogen leaching, nitrous oxide emissions, ammonia emissions, eutrophication potential and acidification potential were higher for organic products,  although in one study "nitrate leaching was 4. Excess nutrients in lakes, rivers, and groundwater can cause algal blooms , eutrophication , and subsequent dead zones.
In addition, nitrates are harmful to aquatic organisms by themselves. Professor Wolfgang Branscheid says that organic animal production is not good for the environment, because organic chicken requires twice as much land as "conventional" chicken and organic pork a quarter more.
In organic farming synthetic pesticides are generally prohibited. A chemical is said to be synthetic if it does not already exist in the natural world. But the organic label goes further and usually prohibit compounds that exist in nature if they are produced by chemical synthesis. So the prohibition is also about the method of production and not only the nature of the compound. A non-exhaustive list of organic approved pesticides with their median lethal doses:.
While there may be some differences in the amounts of nutrients and anti-nutrients when organically produced food and conventionally produced food are compared, the variable nature of food production and handling makes it difficult to generalize results, and there is insufficient evidence to make claims that organic food is safer or healthier than conventional food. Supporters claim that organically managed soil has a higher quality  and higher water retention. Organic farming can build up soil organic matter better than conventional no-till farming, which suggests long-term yield benefits from organic farming.
The Erosion of Civilizations , geomorphologist David Montgomery outlines a coming crisis from soil erosion. Agriculture relies on roughly one meter of topsoil, and that is being depleted ten times faster than it is being replaced. However, a study by the USDA's Agricultural Research Service has found that manure applications in tilled organic farming are better at building up the soil than no-till.
The conservation of natural resources and biodiversity is a core principle of organic production. Advantages to certified organic operations that implement these types of production practices include: Nearly all non-crop, naturally occurring  species observed in comparative farm land practice studies show a preference for organic farming both by abundance and diversity.
Lack of herbicides and pesticides improve biodiversity fitness and population density. Biodiversity from organic farming provides capital to humans. Species found in organic farms enhance sustainability by reducing human input e.
A wide range of organisms benefit from organic farming, but it is unclear whether organic methods confer greater benefits than conventional integrated agri-environmental programs. Organic agriculture is often considered to be more socially just and economically sustainable for farmworkers than conventional agriculture.
However, there is little social science research or consensus as to whether or not organic agriculture provides better working conditions than conventional agriculture. Although illnesses from synthetic inputs pose less of a risk, hired workers still fall victim to debilitating musculoskeletal disorders associated with agricultural work.
The USDA certification requirements outline growing practices and ecological standards but do nothing to codify labor practices. Independent certification initiatives such as the Agricultural Justice Project, Domestic Fair Trade Working Group, and the Food Alliance have attempted to implement farmworker interests but because these initiatives require voluntary participation of organic farms, their standards cannot be widely enforced.
Many actors of the organic industry believe that enforcing labor standards would be unnecessary  , unacceptable  , or unviable due to the constraints of the market.
The Chinese government, especially the local government, has provided various supports for the development of organic agriculture since the s.
Organic farming has been recognized by local governments for its potential in promoting sustainable rural development. The government also establishes demonstration organic gardens, provides training for organic food companies to pass certifications, subsidizes organic certification fees, pest repellent lamps, organic fertilizer and so on.
The government has also been playing an active role in marketing organic products through organizing organic food expos and branding supports. The Dominican Republic has successfully converted a large amount of its banana crop to organic. In Thailand, the Institute for Sustainable Agricultural Communities ISAC was established in to promote organic farming among other sustainable agricultural practices. The national target via the National Plan for Organic Farming is to attain, by , 1.
Much progress has been made: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Government ministries Universities and colleges. Agriculture by country companies Biotechnology Livestock Meat industry Poultry farming. History of organic farming. Biological pest control and Integrated Pest Management. Genetically modified crops , Genetically modified food , and Genetically modified food controversies. This section needs expansion with: You can help by adding to it.
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Organic Food and Farming in China: