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Sadequain and Gulgee are known for their calligraphy and paintings. Two Sufis whose shrines receive much national attention are Ali Hajweri in Lahore c.

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South of the Gumal River, the Sulaiman Range runs in a roughly north-south direction. The highest point of that range, Takht-e Sulaiman, has twin peaks, the higher of which reaches 18, feet 5, metres. The Sulaiman Range tapers into the Marri and Bugti hills in the south. The Sulaiman and, farther south, the low Kirthar Range separate the Balochistan plateau from the Indus plain.

The vast tableland of Balochistan contains a great variety of physical features. In the northeast a basin centred on the towns of Zhob and Loralai forms a trellis-patterned lobe that is surrounded on all sides by mountain ranges.

The hilly terrain becomes less severe southwestward in the form of Ras Koh Range. The small Quetta basin is surrounded on all sides by mountains. The whole area appears to form a node of high ranges. West of the Ras Koh Range, the general landform of northwestern Balochistan is a series of low-lying plateaus divided by hills. In the north the Chagai Hills border a region of true desert, consisting of inland drainage and hamun s playas.

Southern Balochistan is a vast wilderness of mountain ranges, of which the Central Brahui Range is the backbone. The easternmost Kirthar Range is backed by the Pab Range in the west. Other important ranges of southern Balochistan are the Central Makran Range and the Makran Coast Range, whose steep face to the south divides the coastal plain from the rest of the plateau.

The Makran coastal track mostly comprises level mud flats surrounded by sandstone ridges. The isolation of the arid plain has been broken by an ongoing development project at Gwadar , which is linked with Karachi via an improved road transport system. Lying south of the northern mountain rampart, the submontane plateau has four distinct divisions—the Trans-Indus plains, the Potwar Plateau , the Salt Range , and the Sialkot region. The Trans-Indus plains, west of the Indus River, comprise the hill-girt plateaus of the Vale of Peshawar and of Kohat and Bannu , all of which are oases in the arid, scrub-covered landscape of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Of these, the Vale of Peshawar is the most fertile. Gravel or clay alluvial detritus covers much of the area and is formed from loose particles or fragments separated from masses of rock by erosion and other forces. Annual precipitation is generally limited to between 10 and 15 inches and mm , and most of the cultivated area in the Vale of Peshawar is irrigated from canals. Kohat is less developed than the Vale of Peshawar.

Precipitation is about 16 inches mm. Only a small percentage of the cultivated area is canal-irrigated, and its groundwater is not adequately exploited, although the water table is generally high. Much of the area consists of scrub and poor grazing land.

The region is much broken by limestone ridges, and the uneven limestone floor is variously filled with lacustrine clays, gravel, or boulders.

In Bannu, about one-fourth of the cultivated area is irrigated. Annual precipitation is low, amounting to about 11 inches mm. Fat-tailed sheep, camels, and donkeys are raised in Kohat and Bannu; wool is an important cash crop.

The Potwar Plateau covers an area of about 5, square miles 13, square km and lies at an elevation of some 1, to 1, feet to metres. It is bounded on the east by the Jhelum River and on the west by the Indus River.

On the north, the Kala Chitta Range and Margala Hills at about 3, to 5, feet [ to 1, metres] form its boundary. Toward the south it gradually slopes into the Salt Range, which presents a steep face rising to about 2, feet metres even farther south.

The middle of the Potwar Plateau is occupied by the structurally downwarped basin of the Soan River. The general terrain of the basin consists of interlaced ravines, which are locally known as khadera s and are set deep in the soft Shiwalik beds of which the whole area is composed.

The surface layer of the area is formed of windblown loessic silt, deteriorating into sand and gravel toward the hill slopes. The small Rawalpindi plain in the north is the location of the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.

The Potwar Plateau receives modest annual precipitation, averaging between 15 and 20 inches to mm. Though precipitation is somewhat higher in the northwest, the southwest is very arid. The landscape is dissected and eroded by streams that, during the rains, cut into the land and wash away the soil.

The streams are generally deep set and are of little or no use for irrigation. It is generally a poor agricultural area, and its population puts excessive pressure on its resources.

The Salt Range is an extremely arid territory that marks the boundary between the submontane region and the Indus River plain to the south. The highest point of the Salt Range, Mount Sakesar, lies at 4, feet 1, metres. The Salt Range is of interest to geologists because it contains the most complete geologic sequence in the world, in which rocks from early Cambrian times about million years ago to the Pleistocene Epoch about 2,, to 11, years ago are exposed in an unbroken sequence.

The Sialkot region is a narrow submontane area in the northeast. Unlike the Potwar Plateau, it is a rich agricultural region. Precipitation varies from 25 to 35 inches to mm per year, and the water table is high, facilitating well and tube-well irrigation; the soil is heavy and highly fertile. The population distribution is dense, and the land is divided into small farms on which intensive cultivation is practiced. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.

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Lawrence Ziring Shahid Javed Burki. Jan 4, See Article History. Page 1 of Next page The Indus River plain. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: It was to remain a stronghold of Muslim cultural life, which soon also extended to the east Bengal and south Deccan.

This society, known as the Harappan or Indus civilization, flourished until shortly after bp ; it was much more extensive than those of Egypt or…. Colonies and Commonwealth education In education: The postindependence period in Pakistan flag history In flag of Pakistan government archives In archives agriculture ancient Indus civilization In origins of agriculture: The Indian subcontinent art, archaeology, and architecture folk arts In folk art: India and Pakistan Islamic literature In Islamic arts: South Asian jewelry In jewelry: Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

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