Inadequate access to clean, safe, drinking water continues to pose a major public health concern in many Indigenous communities. Each written symbol in the Kannada script corresponds with one syllable , as opposed to one phoneme in languages like English.
Another word of Kannada origin is ' taayviru ' and is found in a 4th-century CE Tamil inscription. Settar studied the ' sittanvAsal ' inscription of first century CE as also the inscriptions at ' tirupparamkunram ', ' adakala ' and ' neDanUpatti '.
The later inscriptions were studied in detail by Iravatham Mahadevan also. Mahadevan argues that the words ' erumi ', ' kavuDi ', ' poshil ' and ' tAyiyar ' have their origin in Kannada because Tamil cognates are not available.
Settar adds the words ' nADu ' and ' iLayar ' to this list. Mahadevan feels that some grammatical categories found in these inscriptions are also unique to Kannada rather than Tamil. Both these scholars attribute these influences to the movements and spread of Jainas in these regions. These are some examples that are proof of the influence of Kannada on Tamil before the common era and in the early centuries of the common era. He writes about pirates between Muziris and Nitrias Netravati River.
He also mentions Barace Barcelore. Nitrias of Pliny and Nitran of Ptolemy refer to the Netravati River as also [ clarification needed ] the modern port city of Mangaluru , upon its mouth. Many of these are Kannada origin names of places and rivers of the Karnataka coast of 1st century CE. He also mentions Pounnata Punnata and refers to beryls, i.
He mentions Malippala Malpe , a coastal town of Karnataka. In this work Larika and Kandaloi are identified as Rastrika and Kuntala. Ptolemy writes that "in the midst of the false mouth and the Barios, there is a city called Maganur" Mangalore. He mentions inland centres of pirates called Oloikhora Alavakheda.
The word Pulimayi means One with body of Tiger in Kannada, which bears testimony to the possible Kannada origin of Satavahana kings.
A possibly more definite reference to Kannada is found in the ' Charition Mime ' ascribed to the late 1st to early 2nd century CE.
The king of this region, and his countrymen, sometimes use their own language, and the sentences they speak could be interpreted as Kannada, including Koncha madhu patrakke haki "Having poured a little wine into the cup separately" and paanam beretti katti madhuvam ber ettuvenu "Having taken up the cup separately and having covered it, I shall take wine separately.
Saletore identifies the site of this play as Odabhandeshwara or Vadabhandeshwara ship-vessel-Ishwara or God , situated about a mile from Malpe, which was a Shaivite centre originally surrounded by a forest with a small river passing through it. Tsitsiridis mentions in his research work that Charition is not an exclusively prose or verse text, but a mixed form. The corrupt lines indicate that the text found at Oxyrhynchus Egypt has been copied, meaning that the original was even earlier in date.
Wilamowitz and Andreassi say that for more precise dating of the original, some place the composition of the work as early as in the Hellenistic period BCE , others at a later date, up to the early 2nd century CE. The earliest examples of a full-length Kannada language stone inscription shilaashaasana containing Brahmi characters with characteristics attributed to those of proto-Kannada in Hale Kannada lit Old Kannada script can be found in the Halmidi inscription , usually dated c.
AD , indicating that Kannada had become an administrative language at that time. The Halmidi inscription provides invaluable information about the history and culture of Karnataka. Current estimates of the total number of existing epigraphs written in Kannada range from 25, by the scholar Sheldon Pollock to over 30, by the Amaresh Datta of the Sahitya Akademi.
Some inscriptions were also found in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. This indicates the spread of the influence of the language over the ages, especially during the rule of large Kannada empires.
The earliest copper plates inscribed in Old Kannada script and language, dated to the early 8th century AD, are associated with Alupa King Aluvarasa II from Belmannu the Dakshina Kannada district , and display the double crested fish, his royal emblem. It dates to around the 9th century and is preserved in the Jain Bhandar, Mudbidri, Dakshina Kannada district.
AD — in old Kannada exists. It is a writing on literary criticism and poetics meant to standardise various written Kannada dialects used in literature in previous centuries. The book makes reference to Kannada works by early writers such as King Durvinita of the 6th century and Ravikirti, the author of the Aihole record of AD.
Kannada works from earlier centuries mentioned in the Kavirajamarga are not yet traced. Some ancient texts now considered extinct but referenced in later centuries are Prabhrita AD by Syamakundacharya, Chudamani Crest Jewel—AD by Srivaradhadeva, also known as Tumbuluracharya, which is a work of 96, verse-measures and a commentary on logic Tatwartha-mahashastra.
Around the beginning of the 9th century, Old Kannada was spoken from Kaveri to Godavari. The Kannada spoken between the rivers Varada and Malaprabha was the pure well of Kannada undefiled. The late classical period gave birth to several genres of Kannada literature, with new forms of composition coming into use, including Ragale a form of blank verse and meters like Sangatya and Shatpadi. The works of this period are based on Jain and Hindu principles. Two of the early writers of this period are Harihara and Raghavanka, trailblazers in their own right.
Harihara established the Ragale form of composition while Raghavanka popularised the Shatpadi six-lined stanza meter. The Vachana Sahitya tradition of the 12th century is purely native and unique in world literature, and the sum of contributions by all sections of society.
Vachanas were pithy poems on that period's social, religious and economic conditions. More importantly, they held a mirror to the seed of social revolution, which caused a radical re-examination of the ideas of caste, creed and religion. Emperor Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I of CE recognised that the Sanskrit style of Kannada literature was Margi formal or written form of language and Desi folk or spoken form of language style was popular and made his people aware of the strength and beauty of their native language Kannada.
He has written it using very limited Sanskrit words which fit with idiomatic Kannada. He succeeded in his challenge and proved wrong those who had advocated that it was impossible to write a work in Kannada without using Sanskrit words. Andayya may be considered as a protector of Kannada poets who were ridiculed by Sanskrit advocates. Thus Kannada is the only Dravidian language which is not only capable of using only native Kannada words and grammar in its literature like Tamil , but also use Sanskrit grammar and vocabulary like Telugu, Malayalam, Tulu, etc.
The Champu style of literature of mixing poetry with prose owes its origins to the Kannada language which was later incorporated by poets into Sanskrit and other Indian languages. His work, entirely composed in the native Bhamini Shatpadi hexa-meter , is a sublime adaptation of the first ten books of the Mahabharata. Purandara Dasa is widely considered the Father of Carnatic music.
The Kannada works produced from the 19th century make a gradual transition and are classified as Hosagannada or Modern Kannada. Most notable among the modernists was the poet Nandalike Muddana whose writing may be described as the "Dawn of Modern Kannada", though generally, linguists treat Indira Bai or Saddharma Vijayavu by Gulvadi Venkata Raya as the first literary works in Modern Kannada. The first modern movable type printing of "Canarese" appears to be the Canarese Grammar of Carey printed at Serampore in , and the " Bible in Canarese " of John Hands in Modern Kannada in the 20th century has been influenced by many movements, notably Navodaya , Navya , Navyottara , Dalita and Bandaya.
Contemporary Kannada literature has been highly successful in reaching people of all classes in society.
Further, Kannada has produced a number of prolific and renowned poets and writers such as Kuvempu , Bendre , and V K Gokak. Works of Kannada literature have received eight Jnanpith awards ,  the highest number awarded to any Indian language. Besides being the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka, Kannada language is present in other areas:. There is also a considerable difference between the spoken and written forms of the language.
Spoken Kannada tends to vary from region to region. The written form is more or less consistent throughout Karnataka. The Ethnologue reports "about 20 dialects" of Kannada. All of these dialects are influenced by their regional and cultural background.
The one million Komarpants in and around Goa speak their own dialect of Kannada, known as Halegannada. They are settled throughout Goa state, throughout Uttara Kannada district and Khanapur taluk of Belagavi district, Karnataka. Their population estimate is about 75, Ethnologue also classifies a group of four languages related to Kannada, which are, besides Kannada proper, Badaga , Holiya , Kurumba and Urali.
Nasik district of Maharashtra has a distinct tribe called 'Hatkar Kaanadi' people who speak a Kannada Kaanadi dialect with lot of old Kannada words. Per Chidananda Murthy, they are the native people of Nasik from ancient times which shows that North Maharashtra's Nasik area had Kannada population years ago.
The language uses forty-nine phonemic letters, divided into three groups: The character set is almost identical to that of other Indian languages. The Kannada script is almost perfectly phonetic, but for the sound of a "half n" which becomes a half m. The number of written symbols, however, is far more than the forty-nine characters in the alphabet, because different characters can be combined to form compound characters ottakshara. Each written symbol in the Kannada script corresponds with one syllable , as opposed to one phoneme in languages like English.
The Kannada script is syllabic. Kannada—Kannada dictionary has existed in Kannada along with ancient works of Kannada grammar. Venkatasubbaiah edited the first modern Kannada—Kannada dictionary, a 9,page, 8-volume series published by the Kannada Sahitya Parishat. The canonical word order of Kannada is SOV subject—object—verb as is the case with Dravidian languages.
Kannada is a highly inflected language with three genders masculine, feminine, and neuter or common and two numbers singular and plural. It is inflected for gender, number and tense, among other things. The most authoritative known book on old Kannada grammar is Shabdhamanidarpana by Keshiraja. The first available Kannada book, a treatise on poetics, rhetoric and basic grammar is the Kavirajamarga from C. The most influential account of Kannada grammar is Keshiraja 's Shabdamanidarpana c.
In many ways the third-person pronouns are more like demonstratives than like the other pronouns. They are pluralized like nouns and whereas the first- and second-person pronouns have different ways to distinguish number. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Kannada language. This article is about the language. For the people, see Kannada people.
For other uses, see Kannada disambiguation. Not to be confused with Canada. Distribution of Kannada native speakers, majority regions in dark blue and minority regions in light blue. Western Ganga dynasty Vijayanagara: Battle of Talikota Sultanate: Bangaloreans Tulu Nadu state movement Belgaum border dispute Gokak agitation. Mythology Kannada epic poetry Vedic mythology Buddhist mythology. Hinduism Buddhism in North Karnataka Jainism: Kannada inscription people Tourism: Mysore literature in Kannada.
Vijayanagara literature in Kannada. Music and performing arts. Cinema Newspapers Magazines Television Radio. List of Karnataka cricketers. Raichur State protected monuments list List of forts List of temples: Chola temples in Bangalore. Flag Coat of arms. Halmidi inscription , Kappe Arabhatta , Shravanabelagola inscription of Nandisena , Tyagada Brahmadeva Pillar , Atakur inscription , Doddahundi nishidhi inscription , and List of people associated with the study of Kannada inscriptions.
Kannada literature , List of important milestones in Kannada literature , and List of notable epics in the Kannada language.
Kannada literature in Vijayanagara empire and Literature of the Kingdom of Mysore. Modern Kannada literature and Kannada poetry. Kannada alphabet and Kannada braille. Karnataka portal Languages portal. Garg, Ganga Ram . Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World: Understanding India-The Culture of India.
The Written languages of the world: Narasimhacharya, R . History of Kannada Literature. Despite a strong record on core civil and political rights protections guaranteed by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the government of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau faces longstanding human rights challenges. Many of these relate to the rights of Indigenous peoples, including violations of their right to safe drinking water and police abuse of Indigenous women.
Canada also grapples with serious human rights issues relating to detention, including the placement of children in immigration detention. The French and Canadian governments should be congratulated for becoming the latest countries to endorse the international political commitment known as the Safe Schools Declaration.
The government has yet to pay adequate attention to systemic poverty, housing, water, sanitation, healthcare, and education problems in Indigenous communities, particularly those in remote and rural areas. The United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination in September urged the government to remedy what it found were persistent violations of the rights of Indigenous peoples.
Inadequate access to clean, safe, drinking water continues to pose a major public health concern in many Indigenous communities. The poor quality of water on First Nations reserves has a serious impact on health and hygiene, especially for high-risk individuals—children, elders, and people with disabilities. At time of writing, the process to adopt safe drinking water regulations had stalled, with the largest First Nations organization in the country calling for the problematic law enabling regulations to be repealed.
Many residents of Grassy Narrows and Wabaseemoong Whitedog , two First Nations communities along the English-Wabigoon River in northwestern Ontario, continue to live with mercury poisoning due to contamination from a now-closed chemical plant upstream in Dryden.
While the Ontario Environment Ministry said it was unaware of the contamination until , a confidential report made public in October noted that provincial officials were told in the s that the site was contaminated and that some groundwater samples taken at the site in recent years still show high levels of mercury.
Indigenous women and girls are more vulnerable to violence than their non-Indigenous counterparts in every province and territory of Canada. While Indigenous women only make up 4. In its inquiry into the murders and disappearances of Indigenous women and girls, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights affirmed that racial discrimination and socio-economic marginalization were root causes of the violence. In September , the Canadian government launched a two-year national inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls.
The inquiry is tasked with examining the root causes and institutional responses to high levels of violence. To date, Canada has made only limited progress to ensure that police are accountable for these policing failures. Lack of accountability for policing abuses against Indigenous women exacerbates long-standing tensions between police and Indigenous communities in Canada.
However, Canadian law and policy do not prohibit immigration detention of children and do not limit how long children can be held in immigration detention. Human Rights Watch and other groups have called on Canadian authorities to ensure that children and families with children are not detained solely because of their immigration status; develop strong policies and guidelines about how the various alternatives to detention should be used; and review their practices to ensure that they are reflecting the best interests of the child in all decisions that affect them.