Joseph Weizenbaum has argued that computers have become metaphors for "effective procedures," that is, for anything that can be solved in a prescribed number of steps, such as gene expression and clerical work. Inasmuch as algorithms tend to be deterministic , meaning that their repeated execution would always result in the production of identical artworks, some external factor is usually introduced. Turn a computer on and leave it alone for an hour.
Adjuvant chemotherapy with Taxan agents showed good outcomes but more investigations are needed. Radiotherapy also does not present a clear consensus and should be considered as adjuvant treatment in selected cases. Examining the data regarding disease free survival and overall survival, we would like to mention Blanchard study in which the author compared the outcome for patients with different histological types of breast sarcoma presenting a median disease free survival DFS of 25 months .
The series of Bousquet et al. In conclusion we underline the heterogeneity of surgical and adjuvant therapy proposed for primary AS. Largest series of patients are requested to reach a shared consensus on the treatment of primary angiosarcoma of the breast. Ethical approval was not necessary, being the study design a literature review. Participated substantially in conception, design, and execution of the study and in the analysis and interpretation of data; also participated substantially in the drafting and editing of the manuscript.
Participated substantially in the drafting and editing of the manuscript. Participated substantially in conception and design of the study. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Int J Surg Case Rep.
Published online Feb 3. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Pansini 5, Naples, Italy. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Primary angiosarcoma AS of the breast is a rare neoplasia that is not related to radiation exposure. Angiosarcoma, Breast sarcomas, Breast cancer. Introduction Primary breast sarcomas are rare conditions that present an histological heterogeneity. Presentation and diagnosis Primary AS usually presents as a poor defined mass in breast parenchyma characterized by a rapid growth.
Surgical treatment The gold-standard treatment in patients affected by primary angiosarcoma of the breast is surgery consisting in modified radical mastectomy combined, when necessary, with axillary node dissection. Patients with smaller tumors may benefit of breast-conserving surgery. Chemotherapy In the available literature there is not an international consensus about chemotherapy regimens to be used in patients with angiosarcoma. Radiation treatment The role of radiation treatment RT is limited to the residual microscopic disease after surgery of the primary tumor.
Prognostic factors The prognosis of the angiosarcoma of the breast, like each histotype of sarcoma, is related to the tumor size, the tumor grade and the resection margin status .
Conclusions Primary angiosarcoma of the breast is a malignant vascular neoplasm arising within breast parenchyma with or without extension into the skin. Conflict of interest The authors declare to have no conflict of interest. Funding All authors have no source of funding.
Ethical approval Ethical approval was not necessary, being the study design a literature review. Author contribution Daniele Bordoni: Participated substantially in design of the study. Participated substantially in collecting data. Angiosarcoma of the breast. Sarcoma after radiation therapy. Increased risk of soft tissue sarcoma after radiotherapy in women with breast carcinoma.
Metastasenbildung bei histologish gutartigen geschwulsten: Angiosarcoma and other vascular tumors of the breast. Pathologic analysis as a guide to prognosis. Primary angiosarcoma of the breast associated Kasabach—Merritt syndrome during pregnancy. The prognostic significance of tumor differentiation. Outcome and prognostic factors in breast sarcoma: Expression of Fli-1, a nuclear transcription factor, distinguishes vascular neoplasms from potential mimics. Primary angiosarcoma of the breast: Sarcomas and malignant phyllodes tumours of the breast—a retrospective study.
Primary nonphyloides breast sarcomas. Primary angiosarcomas of the breast. Primary angiosarcoma of the breast. Clinicopathologic analysis of 49 cases suggesting that grade in not prognostic. Lymph nodes as sites of metastasis from sarcomas of soft tissue.
Adjuvant therapy for adult patients with soft tissue sarcomas. Willinston Park ; 5: Adjuvant chemotherapy for soft-tissue sarcoma: A systematic meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of adjuvant chemotherapy for localized resectable soft tissue sarcoma.
Adjuvant chemotherapy for adult soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and girdles: Efficacy of taxane regimens in patients with metastatic angiosarcoma.
An analysis of 78 breast sarcoma patients without distant metastases at presentation. Surgical margins of resection for breast cancer: Undertreatment of breast cancer in the elderly. Breast reconstruction in older women: Breast cancer surgical treatment in elderly patients. Chirurgia Turin ; 26 4: In some cases, other graphics programs are used to further modify the images produced. This is called post-processing. Non-fractal imagery may also be integrated into the artwork.
Genetic or evolutionary art makes use of genetic algorithms to develop images iteratively, selecting at each "generation" according to a rule defined by the artist. Algorithmic art is not only produced by computers.
Software is unique in its status as metaphor for metaphor itself. Joseph Weizenbaum has argued that computers have become metaphors for "effective procedures," that is, for anything that can be solved in a prescribed number of steps, such as gene expression and clerical work. The American artist, Jack Ox , has used algorithms to produce paintings that are visualizations of music without using a computer.
Two examples are visual performances of extant scores, such as Anton Bruckner 's Eighth Symphony   and Kurt Schwitters ' Ursonate. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the technique of performing basic arithmetic, see Algorism. Retrieved 2 October University of California Santa Barbara. Retrieved 25 December A Clarification of Terms and Ideas", in: Hood Museum of Art , , pp. Retrieved 27 January This artist is notable for his place in the Fractal Art movement, as is his opinion and manifesto.
Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 24 December Fractal geometry in architecture and design. Retrieved 28 October Eighth Symphony visualized themes". Retrieved 9 April Polykleitos Canon Vitruvius De architectura. Journal of Mathematics and the Arts.
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