In chemistry , an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group — O H is bound to a carbon. In the Ziegler process , linear alcohols are produced from ethylene and triethylaluminium followed by oxidation and hydrolysis. All alcohols are mild skin irritants. When applied to a terminal alkene, as is common, one typically obtains a linear alcohol:
Luteinizing Hormone, as well as follicle-stimulating hormone FSH , do not appear to have neither their wave amplitude nor frequency affected when healthy male subjects ingest a large dose 1. One hard-drinking study 2.
Growth hormone does not appear to have its pulse amplitude influenced by alcohol for up to 20 hours after ingestion of a large dose 1. After consumption of 1. After administration of a large bolus of ethanol 1. In a study where 14 healthy persons were given multiple pulses of 0. Alcohol can adversely interact with acetaminophen paracetamol and potentially cause acute liver failure,    although only high doses of acetaminophen have been associated with acute failure, any dose can theoretically cause a degree of damage.
The mechanism of action if via the enzyme CYP2E1, one of the two enzymes responsible for degradation of ethanol. After consumption of ethanol, CYP2E1 levels rise in order to accommodate more ethanol metabolism.
When this occurs, acetaminophen can diverge from normal routes of metabolism and be metabolized through CYP2E1 to a greater extent. Aspirin, when taken alongside alcohol, can increase blood alcohol levels by inhibiting gastric alcohol dehydrogenase. Aspirin may also delay gastric emptying  which would increase the time that ethanol is exposed to the remaining alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes and thus make partial inhibition a less critical point.
Conversely, ethanol can benefit Aspirin by increasing intestinal uptake of aspirin. N-Acetylcysteine is a compound that is able to increase levels of the endogenous anti-oxidant Glutathione. There are a class of herbs that can accelerate regeneration of liver cells and reduce fatty liver deposits induced by a night of drinking, but have a critical catch to their benefits.
These compounds must be consumed after drinking, either the next morning or prior to sleep; pre-loading these 'Night After' herbs can exacerbate increase damage from alcohol. These herbs and molecules include Milk Thistle and its active silybins most notably , and can also extend to molecules like Tauroursodeoxycholic acid ; known as TUDCA. Withania Somnifera, more commonly known as Ashwagandha , appears to be able to be more effective at decreasing social anxiety when paired with alcohol; doses too low of either to be seen as effective appear to be highly effective when combined.
The anxiolytic anxiety reducing effects of Ashwagandha have also been shown to, in rats, reduce spikes in anxiety that are a result of cessation of chronic alcohol consumption; basically, possibly able to prevent anxiety from increasing as a result of quitting alcohol. Agmatine is a neurotransmitter derived from L-Arginine that is currently thought to be highly involved in helping neuropathic pain and drug addiction, and appears to interact with a wide variety of drugs.
It has both positive and negative interactions with alcohol dependent on context. Alcohol's reduction of anxiety anxiolysis is prevented by inhibition of the arginine decarboxylase enzyme, suggesting that it works via agmatine. On a negative side, agmatine is known to be a gastroprotective agent aids in protecting parietal cells from stomach acid  but has counterintuitively enhanced ulcer formation from alcohol consumption in rats.
Common misspellings for Alcohol include alkohol, alcihol, alkihol, ethnol, ethinol. This page is regularly updated, to include the most recently available clinical trial evidence. History Research analysis by Kamal Patel and verified by the Examine. Last updated on Nov 19, Free 5 day supplement course.
Is used for Cognitive Function and Brain Health Is a form of Drug or Pharmaceutical Goes Well With N-AcetylCysteine and related anti-oxidants increases conjugation and safe metabolism via glutathione Ashwagandha , for social anxiety reduction Agmatine may help alcohol withdrawal Does Not Go Well With Smoking Tobacco based cigarettes mostly, but the smoke is also implicated to a degree Ketosis and Acetominophen see nutrient-nutrient interactions Agmatine coingestion may increase stomach ulceration Caution Notice Examine.
Grade Level of Evidence Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies Uncontrolled or observational studies only. The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Scientific research does not always agree. There appears to be a time-dependent influence on testosterone, with acute doses of alcohol increasing testosterone secondary to creating energy influx in the liver small enough of an increase to be 'somewhat' effective but may contribute to libido whereas abuse is known to reduce testosterone levels more notably. The acute increase in testosterone is thought to be related to spikes in libido. No significant alterations in cortisol levels seen with alcohol ingestion in moderate levels.
No significant influence of alcohol on luteinizing hormone levels when consumed moderately. Mixed effects on FSH, but although null effects have been reported an increase may be possible. Cite this page "Alcohol," Examine. Link to This Close. Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled. Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies.
Uncontrolled or observational studies only. Acute ingestion of alcohol may be able to reduce subsequent power output. Very High See 2 studies. Very High See all 3 studies. Very High See all 5 studies. In chemistry , an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group — O H is bound to a carbon. It is these simple monoalcohols that are the subject of this article. The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority.
When a higher priority group is present in the compound, the prefix hydroxy- is used in its IUPAC name. The suffix -ol in non-IUPAC names such as paracetamol or cholesterol also typically indicates that the substance is an alcohol. However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups particularly sugars, such as glucose and sucrose have names which include neither the suffix -ol , nor the prefix hydroxy-.
Alcohol distillation was known to Islamic chemists as early as the eighth century. The Arab chemist, al-Kindi , unambiguously described the distillation of wine in a treatise titled as "The Book of the chemistry of Perfume and Distillations". The Persian physician , alchemist , polymath and philosopher Rhazes CE — CE  is credited with the discovery of ethanol.
The word "alcohol" is from the Arabic kohl Arabic: Alcohol was originally used for the very fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb 2 S 3. It was considered to be the essence or "spirit" of this mineral. It was used as an antiseptic , eyeliner, and cosmetic. The meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled substances in general, and then narrowed to ethanol, when "spirits" was a synonym for hard liquor.
Bartholomew Traheron , in his translation of John of Vigo , introduces the word as a term used by "barbarous" Moorish authors for "fine powder. The Lexicon Chymicum , by William Johnson glosses the word as "antimonium sive stibium.
Libavius in Alchymia refers to "vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum". The term ethanol was invented , combining the word ethane with the "-ol" ending of "alcohol".
IUPAC nomenclature is used in scientific publications and where precise identification of the substance is important, especially in cases where the relative complexity of the molecule does not make such a systematic name unwieldy. In naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds the suffix -ol , e. If a higher priority group is present such as an aldehyde , ketone , or carboxylic acid , then the prefix hydroxy- is used,  e.
In cases where the OH functional group is bonded to an sp 2 carbon on an aromatic ring the molecule is known as a phenol , and is named using the IUPAC rules for naming phenols. In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.
Propyl alcohol may be n -propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol , depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propane chain. As described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is often indicated using the "hydroxy-" prefix. Alcohols are then classified into primary, secondary sec- , s- , and tertiary tert- , t- , based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group.
In these shorthands, R, R', and R" represent substituents , alkyl or other attached, generally organic groups. Alcohols have a long history of myriad uses. For simple mono-alcohols, which is the focus on this article, the following are most important industrial alcohols: The combined capacity of the other alcohols is about the same, distributed roughly equally.
With respect to acute toxicity, simple alcohols have low acute toxicities. Doses of several milliliters are tolerated. Methanol and ethanol are less acutely toxic. All alcohols are mild skin irritants. The metabolism of methanol and ethylene glycol is affected by the presence of ethanol, which has a higher affinity for liver alcohol dehydrogenase.
In this way methanol will be excreted intact in urine. In general, the hydroxyl group makes alcohols polar. Those groups can form hydrogen bonds to one another and to most other compounds. Owing to the presence of the polar OH alcohols are more water-soluble than simple hydrocarbons.
Methanol, ethanol, and propanol are miscible in water. Butanol , with a four-carbon chain, is moderately soluble.
Because of hydrogen bonding , alcohols tend to have higher boiling points than comparable hydrocarbons and ethers. The boiling point of the alcohol ethanol is Simple alcohols are found widely in nature. Ethanol is most prominent because it is the product of fermentation, a major energy-producing pathway. The other simple alcohols are formed in only trace amounts. More complex alcohols are pervasive, as manifested in sugars, some amino acids, and fatty acids.
In the Ziegler process , linear alcohols are produced from ethylene and triethylaluminium followed by oxidation and hydrolysis. The process generates a range of alcohols that are separated by distillation. Many higher alcohols are produced by hydroformylation of alkenes followed by hydrogenation. When applied to a terminal alkene, as is common, one typically obtains a linear alcohol: Such processes give fatty alcohols , which are useful for detergents.
Some low molecular weight alcohols of industrial importance are produced by the addition of water to alkenes. Ethanol, isopropanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol are produced by this general method. Two implementations are employed, the direct and indirect methods. The direct method avoids the formation of stable intermediates, typically using acid catalysts.
In the indirect method, the alkene is converted to the sulfate ester , which is subsequently hydrolyzed. The direct hydration using ethylene ethylene hydration  or other alkenes from cracking of fractions of distilled crude oil. Hydration is also used industrially to produce the diol ethylene glycol from ethylene oxide.
For instance, such a process might proceed by the conversion of sucrose by the enzyme invertase into glucose and fructose , then the conversion of glucose by the enzyme complex zymase into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Several species of the benign bacteria in the intestine use fermentation as a form of anaerobic metabolism. This metabolic reaction produces ethanol as a waste product. Thus, human bodies contain some quantity of alcohol endogenously produced by these bacteria.
In rare cases, this can be sufficient to cause " auto-brewery syndrome " in which intoxicating quantities of alcohol are produced. Like ethanol, butanol can be produced by fermentation processes.
The bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum can feed on cellulose to produce butanol on an industrial scale. Primary alkyl halides react with aqueous NaOH or KOH mainly to primary alcohols in nucleophilic aliphatic substitution. Secondary and especially tertiary alkyl halides will give the elimination alkene product instead.
Grignard reagents react with carbonyl groups to secondary and tertiary alcohols. Related reactions are the Barbier reaction and the Nozaki-Hiyama reaction. Aldehydes or ketones are reduced with sodium borohydride or lithium aluminium hydride after an acidic workup. Another reduction by aluminiumisopropylates is the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction. Alkenes engage in an acid catalysed hydration reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst that gives usually secondary or tertiary alcohols.