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BDI Baltic Dry Index The very Americans who have been among the losers of globalization stand to be among the losers of a reversal of globalization—including a trade war.

Gol Gohar Iron Ore Company. Iran Daily , July 5, Chinese markets will be closed for all of this week, but there was an important development when Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao told Greek lawmakers in a visit to the country over the weekend that China supports a stable Euro and will not reduce its holdings of European bonds. However, a repeat of September's advance looks unlikely, potentially removing a source of support for commodities.

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Iran's rapid economic expansion in the s, coupled with a popular desire to participate in the country's economic growth through the financial markets, led to a demand for equity. The Government became actively engaged in the process, by granting shares to employees of large state-owned and family-owned enterprises. Market activity increased substantially, as both companies and high-net-worth individuals participated in the new-found wealth associated with the TSE.

Everything came to a standstill after the Islamic Revolution leading in a prohibition against interest-based activities and nationalization of major banks and industrial giants. Mobilization of all resources towards the war effort during the 8-year Iran—Iraq War did not help matters. Following the end of the war, the Budget Act re-established activity on the TSE, and within eight years the exchange saw its numbers rise to companies listed. The Government fully embraced economic reforms and a privatization initiative in with a surge of activity in share activity of many state-owned companies through the defined targets in the first " Five-Year Economic Reform " where the Government together with the Parliament defined the economic prospects of the country for the coming five years.

Attention to promotion of the private sector and new interest in the TSE brought life back to the market. However, lack of regulation and out-of-date legal framework led to crisis in the market leading to certain "meltdowns".

Over the to period an automated trading system was introduced, and a number of important regulatory mechanisms were strengthened.

Other complementary markets have also been established alongside the equities market. The symbol of the TSE is a highly stylized representation of an Achaemedian dynasty BC gun-metal relief artifact, which was found in Lorestan province. The artifact features four men, hand in hand, indicating unity and cooperation. They are shown standing inside circles of the globe, which is in turn, according to ancient Iranian myth, supported on the backs of two cows, symbols of intelligence and prosperity.

Under its new structure, TSE has online trading , an arbitration board, digital signature , investor protection, surveillance mechanisms as well as post-trade systems. Trading takes place through the Automated Trade Execution System from 9am to 12 noon, which is integrated with a clearing, settlement, depository and registry system. The Tehran Stock Exchange TSE has started an ambitious modernization program aimed at increasing market transparency and attracting more domestic and foreign investors.

Concrete measures that have been taken in the planning and operations of the stock exchange such as the settlement system, geographical expansion, new exchange laws in order to attract local and foreign capital.

The new system makes it possible to purchase and sell stocks on the same day. The system has also made it possible for 2, brokerage stations to work simultaneously, while the number was just about in the past. The rise in electronic dealing, non-stop input and updated data on orders, transactions and indices are among other features of the new system.

The new system has made it possible to link the stock market to the international bourses. The bourse can now handle transactions per second and , transactions per day. The trading system is an order driven system, which matches buying and selling orders of the investors. Investors can place their orders with TSE accredited brokers , who enter these orders into the trading system. The mechanism for which the price of equities is determined is as follows: Under the price priority rule, a selling buying order with the lowest highest price takes precedence.

Under the time priority rule, an earlier order takes precedence over others at the same price. Thus, when the lowest sell and the highest buy orders match in price, the transaction is executed at the price.

In short, the TSE market is a pure order-driven Market. The trading system also generates and displays details of current and historical trading activity, including prices, volumes traded and outstanding buy and sell orders.

This ensures that investors have the required information to be able to take informed investment decisions. Short selling is not permitted. There are no minimum trading lots. Besides the Main and Secondary Market , there is a Corporate participation certificates Market corporate bonds. Secondary Market is an exchange facility where the listed securities of small and mid-size companies can be traded efficiently and competitively.

Since importers and exporters have also been permitted to trade foreign-exchange certificates on the TSE, creating a floating value for the rial known as the "TSE rate". In the "official rate" was abolished, and the TSE rate became the basis for the new unified foreign exchange regime.

Trading takes place through licensed private brokers registered with the Securities and Exchange Organization of Iran. Thirty-one of the 88 brokerages active in the TSE are licensed to trade the futures contracts. The leverage for futures contracts is set at 1-to TSE will only deal in the derivatives through electronic trading.

Starting March , investors are able to trade in the Iranian stock market through the Internet from anywhere in the world, or get all the necessary information before traveling to Iran. Presently, TSE trades mainly in securities offered by listed companies. As of , equities and corporate bonds e.

Sukuk are being traded at TSE. The introduction of project-based participation certificates that bear a fixed annual return during the period of the project and promise the final settlement of the profit at the date of its completion, has diversified the market. According to the Wall Street Journal in , Iran is "full of well-run companies". A total of companies from these sectors are listed on the TSE, which translates to This indicates that the capital market in Tehran is heavily concentrated on four economic sectors with companies that make up nearly half of the total listed companies on the exchange.

A comparison of the top Iranian companies and the Fortune in indicated that the gross profit margins of the top Iranian companies were almost double those of the Fortune For Fortune companies, the average gross profit margin was 6. After mining, other industries with highest margins are base metals, and telecommunications.

The best performing industries in , in terms of total sales , were the banking and automotive sectors. The worst performers were home appliances and electronics. Companies showing the most profit, are mostly in pharmaceutical, petrochemical and steel businesses. The sharp decline of the Rial in has made exports more competitive.

Fluctuations in global prices of commodities and the official exchange rate of the Iranian currency have a big impact on the profitability of companies which produce global commodities that are either exported or sold on the free market domestically.

More than half the weight of the Iranian stock market cap belongs to such companies. The Government of Iran directly holds 35 percent of the TSE, while securing another 40 percent through pension funds and investment companies such as the Social Security Investment Company , one of the largest institutional investors on the TSE.

Bonyads also play a significant role in TSE trading. In fewer than 5 percent of Iranians owned stock. By March , 3. As of , about foreign investors including 25 Iranian citizens abroad comprise 0. This number increased to in As of , 21 mutual funds managed by permitted brokerage firms and investment banks are investing in the TSE according to the investment funds regulation. The performance of the TSE has had no correlation with major exchanges or emerging stock markets over the past few years and not even with the oil price.

In December, , companies with a market capitalization of IRR 32, The TSE has had an exceptional performance over the past 5 years. The market bottomed in June mainly because of the renewed privatization drive in the Iranian economy. The TSE was not directly affected by the international financial turmoil in , but following the global reduction in prices of copper and steel, the bourse index dropped by Some 3 million trade exchanges were made, pushing up the index to 12, units from the previous 8, units.

Given the relative low market valuation of TSE stocks in , the upward trend was expected to continue over the long run, rather than being a bubble. Export-oriented companies have been favoured because of the imposition of an oil embargo by the international community and the consequent sharp decline in the value of the Iranian rial over Following Iranian rial 's strong devaluation between and and the presidential elections , many Iranian investors started to move their assets from gold into domestic equities.

As of September , the TSE trades at price-to-earnings multiple of 6 times, with a 17 percent dividend yield. The Iranian state is the biggest player in the economy, and the annual budget strongly influences the outlook of local industries and the stock market. The budget is not expected to bring much growth for many of the domestic industries. Iran is the last, large untapped emerging market in the world.

According to Goldman Sachs , Iran is forecast to reach the highest economic growth between and and join the world's largest economies world's 12th economy by According to Voltan Capital Management LLC in New York City , growth valuations and potential investment upside are similar to frontier markets in their early stage while it has developed characteristics such as well-educated workforce , a large middle-class and a broad industrial base.

In recent years, the role of the private sector has been further on the increase. Foreign investors can bid in Iranian privatization tenders, but need permission from the Economy Ministry on a case-by-case basis. There are differing estimates of the total capital held by Iranian expatriates. So far, the Tedpix index has been driven by domestic investors, including wealthy Iranians, public sector pension funds and the investment arms of state-owned banks. For the index to prosper in the long run, more foreign investors need to make significant share purchases.

The new by-law on foreign portfolio investment was approved by the government in June , but ratified by the Council of Ministers in April, Under this new bylaw, foreign investors can participate in the TSE for the first time. Initially, however, some limitations had been imposed on foreign investors:. Since April , foreign investors have been able to open foreign-currency accounts at Iranian banks and exchange their currencies to rials and vice versa.

Foreigners who want to trade in Iran must get a license , which the exchange says will take seven days on its website. The Central Bank of Iran is also in charge of providing the investors with the necessary foreign exchange , which is also transferrable.

Iran is to target foreign investment in its energy sector by creating an umbrella group of nearly 50 state-run firms and listing its shares on four international stock exchanges. In , Mehrafarin Brokerage Company became the first broker to open an office in London.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Economic history of Iran. Government of Iran and Islamic banking. Tehran Stock Exchange Services Company. Banking in Iran and Shetab Banking System. Internet in Iran and Financial data vendor. Bond market in Iran.

Derivatives market in Iran. Ghadir Investment Company and Venture capital in Iran. Iranian Economic Reform Plan. Inflation and monetary policy in Iran. Foreign direct investment in Iran and Kish Stock Exchange.

Iran portal Business and economics portal. History Archived at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved August 5, Archived from the original on Retrieved July 31, Financial Times, March 11, Retrieved March 12, Archived from the original on August 4, Are you brave enough to invest in Iran? Retrieved March 28, Archived from the original on March 10, The Business Year Turquoise Partners July Retrieved August 16, Turquoise Partners, April , Retrieved June 21, Archived from the original PDF on Tehran stock exchange prepares for flood of foreign investment.

Financial Times , May 4, Retrieved October 16, Retrieved August 2, Archived from the original on December 13, Tehran Stock Exchange, May 19, Eventually, on the night of 29 December one of the greatest fires in London's history took place. The Exchange's floor was hit by a clutch of incendiary bombs , which were extinguished quickly. Trading on the floor was now drastically low and most was done over the phone to reduce the possibility of injuries.

The Exchange was only closed for one more day during wartime, in due to damage from a V-2 rocket. Nonetheless trading continued in the house's basement. After decades of uncertain if not turbulent times, stock market business boomed in the late s. This spurred officials to find new, more suitable accommodation. The work on the new Stock Exchange Tower began in The Exchange's new feet 96 metre high building had 26 storeys with council and administration at the top, and middle floors let out to affiliate companies.

First, two trading prohibitions were abolished. A report from the Monopolies and Mergers Commission recommended the admittance of both women and foreign-born members on the floor. There were more governance changes in , when the governing Council of the Exchange was replaced by a Board of Directors drawn from the Exchange's executive, customer and user base; and the trading name became "The London Stock Exchange". This turned out to be one of the most useful indices of all, and tracked the movements of the leading companies listed on the Exchange.

On 20 July a bomb planted by the IRA exploded in the men's toilets behind the visitors' gallery. The area had already been evacuated and nobody was injured. Police officials said that if there had been no warning, the human toll would have been very high. The biggest event of the s was the sudden re-regulation of the financial markets in the UK in The phrase "Big Bang" was coined to describe measures, including abolition of fixed commission charges and of the distinction between stockjobbers and stockbrokers on the London Stock Exchange, as well as the change from an open outcry to electronic, screen-based trading.

In the Exchange launched the Alternative Investment Market , the AIM, to allow growing companies to expand into international markets. In , the Exchange's shareholders voted to become a public limited company, London Stock Exchange plc. The Exchange also acquired Proquote Limited, a new generation supplier of real-time market data and trading systems.

The Group's headquarters are in Paternoster Square. Attempts to occupy the square were thwarted by police. The protesters moved nearby to occupy the space in front of St Paul's Cathedral. Issuer services help companies from around the world to join the London equity market in order to gain access to capital. London Stock Exchange allows companies to raise money, increase their profile and obtain a market valuation through a variety of routes, thus following the firms throughout the whole IPO process.

London Stock Exchange runs several markets for listing, giving an opportunity for different sized companies to list. International companies can list a number of products in London including shares, depositary receipts and debt, offering different and cost-effective ways to raise capital.

In the Exchange opened a Hong Kong office and has attracted more than companies from the Asia-Pacific region. For the biggest companies exists the Premium Listed Main Market. For international companies that fall outside of the EU, it operates the Depository Receipt DR scheme as a way of listing and raising capital. Professional Securities Market This market facilitates the raising of capital through the issue of specialist debt securities or depositary receipt s DRs to professional investors.

Specialist Fund Market Is London Stock Exchange's dedicated market, designed to accept more sophisticated fund vehicles, governance models and security.

It is suitable only for institutional, professional and highly knowledgeable investors. The Specialist Fund Market is an EU Regulated Market and thus securities admitted to the market are eligible for most investor mandates providing a pool of liquidity for issuers admitted to the market.

The securities available for trading on London Stock Exchange: The main market is home to Over 1, large companies from 60 different countries. Over the past 10 years [ when? A wide range of businesses including early-stage, venture capital -backed as well as more-established companies join AIM seeking access to growth capital.

Futures and options on the most liquid European stock underlyings and on European benchmark indices were expected to be launched in Q4 and Q1 subject to Financial Services Authority approval. ORB acts as an electronic secondary market for retail investors. ORB offers an open and transparent market model for trading in retail-size. New market models means private investors will be able to see prices on-screen and trade in bonds in a similar way as they currently do for shares.

This creates a greater efficiency of electronic on-book execution and option to use straight-through-processing to settlement system. Retail Bonds are driven by cost-effectiveness, simplicity of transaction charging and standardisation of market structure. The key aim of ORB is to increase distribution for bonds by opening up these markets to private investors who may have previously felt excluded from this market. This is by increasing the availability of publication on offer, detailing the risks and benefits involved in Retail Bonds, such as taxation.

This portrays the advantage using ORB can have, even for non-bank smaller firms seeking to raise capital. Pounds sterling are the UK's major currency unit, but pence are often used when quoting prices; e.

As of [update] London Stock Exchange offered trading in more emerging market exchange traded funds ETFs than any other exchange in the world.

London Stock Exchange supplies its participants with real time prices and trading data creating the transparency and liquidity through several services. Feeds are also available through providers such as Bloomberg and Thomson Reuters. Some of the products and references provided by London Stock Exchange Group are:. Monte Titoli MT is the pre-settlement, settlement, custody and asset services provider of the Group.

MT operates both on-exchange and OTC trades with over banks and brokers. London Stock Exchange's current trading platform is its own Linux -based edition named Millennium Exchange. Their old trading platform TradElect was based on Microsoft's. Despite TradElect only being in use for about two years, [23] after suffering multiple periods of extended downtime and unreliability [24] [25] the LSE announced in that it was planning to switch to Linux in LSEG now provides high performance technology solutions, including trading, market surveillance and post trade systems for over 40 organisations and exchanges, including the Group's own markets.

Additional services include network connectivity, hosting and quality assurance testing. On 23 June , the London Stock Exchange announced that it had agreed on the terms of a recommended offer to the shareholders of the Borsa Italiana S. The merger of the two companies created a leading diversified exchange group in Europe.

The combined group was named the London Stock Exchange Group , but still remained two separate legal and regulatory entities. One of the long-term strategies of the joint company is to expand Borsa Italiana's efficient clearing services to other European markets.

Currently the speed of latency on Turquoise as measured at the end of August is 97 microseconds on average for Currently shareholders include twelve of the leading investment banks. Turquoise operates a maker-taker fee scheme: There are currently 2, securities, across 19 countries that are on Turquoise. London Stock Exchange described the offer as "derisory", a sentiment echoed by shareholders in the Exchange.

This too it rejected. While the seller of those shares was undisclosed, it occurred simultaneously with a sale by Scottish Widows of 2. Many hedge funds had accumulated large positions within the LSE, and many managers of those funds, as well as Furse, indicated that the bid was still not satisfactory.

NASDAQ's bid was made more difficult because it had described its offer as "final", which, under British bidding rules, restricted their ability to raise its offer except under certain circumstances. Having received acceptances of only 0. The Exchange intends to build on its exceptionally valuable brand by progressing various competitive, collaborative and strategic opportunities, thereby reinforcing its uniquely powerful position in a fast evolving global sector. Normal trading sessions on the main orderbook SETS are from The detailed schedule is as follows:.

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World Federation of Exchanges. Retrieved 17 July Retrieved 24 August Retrieved 2 February Retrieved 14 June A Valuable Exchange at the Royal Exchange". Retrieved 9 August IRA bombs Stock Exchange". Apparent IRA warning allows time to evacuate the building and surrounding area.

Retrieved on 12 August Protest continues for second day".